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Optimization Of Grain Size And Moisture Content Of Young Coconut Shell And Coir (YCSC) Using Cutting-Extracting-Drying Method For Pelletization Preparation

Idris, Norain and Zakaria, Muhammad Zulfattah and Ahmad, Umi Hayati and Mohd Yusof, Norfadzlia and Mohd Zain, Raeihah and Md Isa, Mohamed Hafiz (2017) Optimization Of Grain Size And Moisture Content Of Young Coconut Shell And Coir (YCSC) Using Cutting-Extracting-Drying Method For Pelletization Preparation. Project Report. UTeM, Melaka, Malaysia. (Submitted)

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Plant waste or biomass can be used as fuel to produce useful energy. They are abundant, free and can be consumed to reduce landfill. One of biomass available in Malaysia is young coconut waste. This fundamental study aims to establish information on preparing young coconut waste to produce good pellets, which can be utilized as fuel in gasifier. Young coconut waste is fortunately abundant in Malacca, since coconut shake business is one of a core business here. Only good pellets will allow maximum energy extraction from the waste, which resulted from optimum size of shredded/cut and moisture content. Therefore, the scope of the research will cover optimal cutting size of young coconut waste and consistent optimal moisture content by varying several drying parameters which are temperature, air flow rate and retention time to obtain consistent moisture content, i.e. the best approach to prepare young coconut waste for pelleting process is proposed in this work. Even though there are already series of research done related to biomass pellets in Malaysia, many of the research use oil palm tree waste and old coconut coir as fuel, in which the content of its moisture is insignificant. The novelty of this research is the new method to prepare young coconut coir, which has high moisture content and still attached to its shell. Moisture from wet young coconut waste needs to be mechanically extracted before drum drying process. Therefore, cutting-extracting-drying method will be used for its preparation compared to shredding-drying method used for old coconut preparation. This research will significantly reduce the amount of waste at disposal site especially in Malacca and at the same time to generate income when later the pellets will be sold or exported. The smallest particle size influenced the quality of pellets in term of density and visual properties. The density value of all young coconut waste pellet fuel samples had in range of 0.748g/cm3 to 0.883g/cm3 which still in the range of Pellet Fuel Institute standard. Pellets obtained from ≤1mm particle size materials showed higher density values, 0.883g/cm3 compared to other particle sizes. The expansion tendency for pellet, which consists of the smallest particle (1mm-grain) after pelleting process is low compared to 2mm and 4 mm grain size, most probably due to larger surface area contact between the grains, which resulted in greater bonding. From the evaluation, 1 mm-grain size from 9% of feedstock moisture content achieved the highest score in visual inspection of pellet quality followed by 2mm and 4 mm of grain size. The drying temperature is the most important parameter affecting the moisture content, drying rate and drying consistency. The drying rate increases as the temperature increases. Using high temperature (105°C), materials required short drying time. However, by referring to FTIR analysis, high temperature will affect the lignin content in the young coconut waste material. Times for drying the young coconut waste at 90°C longer than times for drying at 95°C, 100°C and 105°C. Drying at 95°C and 105°C showed the most consistent of moisture content compared with 90°C and 100°C. Drying temperature of 95°C is the most optimum temperature for drying process based on low disturbance of lignin structure, drying consistency and drying rate criteria to obtain required moisture content in descending priority order. The findings are to be used by biomass-pellet manufacturers and as benchmark for further pelletization research.

Item Type: Monograph (Project Report)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Renewable energy sources, Waste products, Biomass energy, Agricultural wastes
Subjects: T Technology > T Technology (General)
T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Divisions: Library > Projek Jangka Panjang / Pendek > FTK
Depositing User: Mohd Hannif Jamaludin
Date Deposited: 24 Jul 2018 08:14
Last Modified: 24 Jul 2018 08:14

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